Nas and actor Louie “Original Don Dada” Rankin appeared together in the 1998 cult classic Belly. In 2016, they reunited for DJ Khaled’s “Nas Album Done” video and were able to spend some quality time together getting reacquainted.
On Monday (September 30), Rankin was involved in a fatal car accident in Ontario, Canada. As the news spread, Nas took to Instagram to memorialize his late friend with two photos of them together on Khaled’s video set
“Louie Rankin,” he wrote in the caption. “Great working with this man. A legend. In Belly you stole the show. “ You Wana Rump with bombaclot me??!” In @djkhaled video Nas Album Done, your presence was super live wire much needed. RIP Don Dada.”
Rankin played Jamaican drug kingpin “Ox” in the Hype Williams-directed film while Nas was cast in the role of “Sincere.” DMX, Method Man and Tionne “T-Boz” Watkins of TLC also starred in the movie.
Nas’ character begins to question his life of crime but reluctantly agrees to help DMX’s character “Tommy” sell a new batch of heroin. Subsequently, they begin transporting the drug from Queens, New York to Omaha, Nebraska.
Rankin also acted in other films such as 2002’s Shottas and 2014’s We Run These Streets.
Details surrounding the crash are scare but are expected to be released soon.
Hip Hop pioneer “Jimmy Super Rhymes Spicer” has lost his battle with cancer. According to veteran New York City promoter Van Silk, he passed away on Friday (September 27) afternoon.
The tributes have started to roll in on social media. Van shared his sentiments via Facebook.
“Jimmy was supposed to perform at the 46th Anniversary Of Hip Hip this past Saturday (September 21),” he wrote. “The last time we talked was in August, but I got a call from his daughter Angelina that her father will not be able to perform. Jimmy asked me to do him a favor.
“Please make sure that the rights to his song ‘Dollar Bill Y’all’ revert back to his family and I told him I will make the connection and put your family in touch!! We were able to have an award for him which will be presented to his family from last week event. EVEN THOUGH HE DIDN’T MAKE IT TO PERFORM, HE WAS THERE ANYWAY. MAY YOU SLEEP WELL MY BROTHER.”
Spicer was diagnosed with advanced brain and lung cancer last year. Despite putting up a valiant fight, his condition took a drastic turn earlier this month. Kurtis Blow said Spicer had recently been moved to hospice care.
Subsequently, his daughter Janel launched a GoFundMe to help with medical and funeral costs.
Spicer was 61.
Many of his Hip Hop peers have expressed their condolences on social media, including Russell Simmons, Snoop Dogg, Questlove, MC Debbie D and Cozmo D from Newcleus
Singer, Rapper, Dancer, Photographer, Businessman, Son, Father, Brother, Uncle, Nephew, Friend & Homie! Decatur G.A’s Own will be missed.
Cutty, whose real name was Ricardo Lewis, was a member of the trio Jim Crow alongside Mr. Mo and multi-platinum selling producer Polow Da Don. The late artist and his group were part of the Attic Crew, an Atlanta-based collective that included notable artists such as YoungBloodz, Shawty Putt and Playboy
Jim Crow released two LPs, 1999’s Crow’s Nest and 2001’s Right Quick, during their run and became best known for their single “Holla At A Playa.” The Attic Crew also released an album together, 2002’s Finally, featuring the T.I. assisted track “Dope Boi Fresh.”
Outside of his work in Jim Crow and Attic Crew, Cutty made an impact through his guest appearances on multiple noteworthy singles.
During his career, the ATLien contributed hooks to songs such as YoungBloodZ’s “85” and “Cadillac Pimpin,” Trillville’s “Some Cut” and Big Boi’s “Shutterbug.”
Cutty’s death has sparked an outpouring of tributes and mourning on social media, particularly within the Atlanta Hip Hop community. Rest In Peace Ricardo Lewis & Heather Lewis.
Jair Bolsonaro has made many racist and offensive remarks about indigenous peoples in Brazil, over a long period of time. This is a selection.
Jair Bolsonaro, a far right, nationalist politician, took office as President of Brazil on 1 January 2019.
The former army captain, he has made many racist and offensive remarks about indigenous peoples in Brazil, over a long period of time. This is a selection.
On wiping out the “Indians”
“Too bad the Brazilian cavalry was not as efficient as the American, who exterminated the Indians”
“It’s a shame que the Brazilian cavalry has not Been the efficient to the Americans, who exterminated the Indians. ” Courier Braziliense newspaper, April 12, 1998
Article from Courier Braziliense, April 1998, which includes Jair Bolsonaro’s quote “It’s a shame that the Brazilian cavalry hasn’t been efficient as the Americans, who exterminated the Indians.”
“The Indians do not speak our language, they have no money, they have no culture. They are native peoples. How can they get 13% of the national territory”
On indigenous people as an obstacle to mining & agribusiness
“There is no indigenous land where there are no minerals. Gold, tin and magnesium are in these lands, especially in the Amazon, the richest area in the world. I do not enter this bullshit to defend land for Indian ”
“[Indian reservations] stifle agribusiness. In Brazil you cannot reduce one square meter of indigenous land”
On the demarcation of indigenous territories
“I’ve had a fight with Jarbas Birdie in here. I fought in a homeland crime he committed by demarcating the Ianomami reserve. Criminal.
” There will not be one centimeter demarcated for indigenous reserve or maroon”
“Not a centimeter will be demarcated either the an indigenous reserve or as a quilombo [territory for descendents of African slave communities].”
“You can be sure that if I get there [elected President of Brazil] there will be no money for NGOs. If it’s up to me, every citizen will have a firearm in the house. There will be a centimeter demarcated for indigenous reservations or quilombolas. ”
“If I take over [the Presidency of Brazil] I will not have an inch more for indigenous land”
“This unilateral policy of demarcating indigenous land by the Executive will cease to exist, the reserve that I can reduce its size I will do there. It’s a big fight that you will fight with the UN ”
__ “This one-sided policy of demarcating indigenous land by the Executive will cease to exist. Any book that I can reduce in size, I will do so. It will be a very big fight that we are going to have with the UN” __
On abolishing existing indigenous territories
“In 2019 we will clear [the indigenous reserve] Raposa Serra do Sol. We will give rifle and weapons to all farmers”
On forcibly integrating indigenous people
“Let’s integrate them into society. Because the Army does a wonderful job of it, incorporating Indians, that’s right, into the Armed Forces. ”
On dismantling FUNAI (Brazil’s department for indigenous affairs)
“ If I’m elected, I’ll serve a blow to FUNAI ; a blow to the neck. There’s no other way. It’s not useful anymore ”
Deathrow Records has reportedly been acquired by the Hasbro toy company, the same entity responsible for several classic toys such as Mr. Potato Head, My Little Pony and G.I. Joe.
According to Rolling Stone Hasbro announced on Thursday (August 22) they had purchased Entertainment One, a multimedia company that owns the children’s franchises Peppa Pig and PJ Masks.
eOne also has a music division, which just happens to be one of the largest independent labels in the industry. During this year’s first quarter, the company took in $30 million worth of revenue.
“Hasbro will leverage eOne’s immersive entertainment capabilities to bring our portfolio of brands that have appeal to gamers, fans and families to all screens globally and realize full franchise economics across our blueprint strategy for shareholders,” CEO Brian Goldner told Deadline, “We are excited to welcome eOne’s talented employees from around the world into the Hasbro family.”
eOne has owned Death Row’s catalog for several years. The company spent roughly $280 million to buy it in 2013, seven years after the legendary Hip Hop label was forced to declare bankruptcy.
BRONX, NY – D.j. Kool Herc, changed the course of music forever on August 11, 1973 when he threw a Back To School Jam at 1520 Sedgwick Avenue in the Bronx.
At the time, admission to the event cost ¢.25 for the ladies and ¢.50 for the fellas, but little did they know what they were witnessing was the birth of Hip Hop.
Although there’s been some debate over who actually coined the term “Hip Hop,” legendary New York promoter Van Silk credited Grandmaster Flash & The Furious 5’s Keith Cowboy for naming it and the late Lovebug Starski for making it popular.
“The term Hip Hop was coined by Keith Cowboy from Grandmaster Flash & The Furious 5 and Lovebug Starski popularized it,” Silk explained“Now, both of our brothers are gone and can’t dispute it. But I guess they discussing it now together. I’ve just seen many articles written by what I call fake industry news giving Lovebug credit for the term. I want to tell the truth to those who were not there.”
On Hip Hop’s 46th birthday, a slew of Hip Hop artists have taken to social media to show their appreciation for the genre.
Kool D.j. Red Alert, who was instrumental in blasting Hip Hop to the masses through his WRKS 98.7 Kiss FM radio show, Bahamadia, DJ Premier, Snoop Dogg and Run-DMC’s Rev Run are just a few of those celebrating the monumental day.
The De La Soul and Tommy Boy Records saga is at an end — at least for now.
After the legendary Hip Hop trio revealed both parties were unable to come to an agreement, Pos, Dave and Maseo have shared another Instagram post thanking their fans and explaining why streaming anything De La under the Tommy Boy umbrella is detrimental to them.
“Thank you friends and fans,” the caption begins. “Your kind positive words mean a lot and your support goes even farther. As frustrating as it is and as crazy as it may sound, your act of NOT purchasing or streaming anything musically De La Soul, falling under the Tommy Boy banner (until further notice) helps us immensely and can possibly aid others experiencing these similar woes.
“Thank you @nas …thanks Pete @bittenbender and @massappeal for your committed support and promising business relationship. We’re in the stew working on new music and will continue to celebrate this wonderful journey we’ve been blessed to experience. Thank you @djpremier and @realpeterock for your diligence and support.”
Elsewhere in the caption, De La revealed a special 30-year commemorative release in on the way and issued an ominous warning for future or current Tommy Boy artists.
“30 years is a helluva milestone,” they continued. “We’re so proud to be able to share our celebration with you all. Look out for our 30 year commemorative release coming very soon #delacoinz Your support will directly fund future endeavors and projects.
“Just to put the final nail in the coffin.We wish Tommy Boy no ills but we do call for a boycott of anything bearing the name. Karma will do the rest… that old enslaved record label contract dinosaur is long dead and gone, but unfortunately still stinks. For those who may not have had a similar experience with Tommy Boy, be thankful, be wise and stay alert… the devil does not rest and is never satisfied.”
“Seek and check out these De La Soul releases: Impossible Mission mixtape #grinddate De La Soul: Are You In? Nike + Original run #smelltheda.i.s.y.#andtheanonymousnobody. Tom Misch feat. De La Soul ‘It Runs Through Me’ @djshadow feat. De La Soul ‘Rocket Fuel.’”
De La and Tommy Boy’s negotiations started months ago. Maseo admitted the whole situation has caused “a lot of pain and suffering.”
But as their most recent post states in all caps: “POSITIVE ENERGY AND CONSTRUCTIVE ATTITUDE WILL YIELD SO MUCH REWARD.”
The FBI for the first time has identified fringe conspiracy theories as a domestic terrorist threat, according to a previously unpublicized document obtained by Yahoo News.
The FBI intelligence bulletin from the bureau’s Phoenix field office, dated May 30, 2019, describes “conspiracy theory-driven domestic extremists,” as a growing threat, and notes that it is the first such report to do so. It lists a number of arrests, including some that haven’t been publicized, related to violent incidents motivated by fringe beliefs.
The document specifically mentions QAnon, a shadowy network that believes in a deep state conspiracy against President Trump, and Pizzagate, the theory that a pedophile ring including Clinton associates was being run out of the basement of a Washington, D.C., pizza restaurant (which didn’t actually have a basement).
“The FBI assesses these conspiracy theories very likely will emerge, spread, and evolve in the modern information marketplace, occasionally driving both groups and individual extremists to carry out criminal or violent acts,” the document states. It also goes on to say the FBI believes conspiracy theory-driven extremists are likely to increase during the 2020 presidential election cycle.
The FBI said another factor driving the intensity of this threat is “the uncovering of real conspiracies or cover-ups involving illegal, harmful, or unconstitutional activities by government officials or leading political figures.” The FBI does not specify which political leaders or which cover-ups it was referring to.
President Trump is mentioned by name briefly in the latest FBI document, which notes that the origins of QAnon is the conspiratorial belief that “Q,” allegedly a government official, “posts classified information online to reveal a covert effort, led by President Trump, to dismantle a conspiracy involving ‘deep state’ actors and global elites allegedly engaged in an international child sex trafficking ring.”
This recent intelligence bulletin comes as the FBI is facing pressure to explain who it considers an extremist, and how the government prosecutes domestic terrorists. In recent weeks the FBI director has addressed domestic terrorism multiple times but did not publicly mention this new conspiracy theorist threat.
The FBI is already under fire for its approach to domestic extremism. In a contentious hearing last week before the Senate Judiciary Committee, FBI Director Christopher Wray faced criticism from Democrats who said the bureau was not focusing enough on white supremacist violence. “The term ‘white supremacist,’ ‘white nationalist’ is not included in your statement to the committee when you talk about threats to America,” Sen. Richard Durbin, D-Ill., said. “There is a reference to racism, which I think probably was meant to include that, but nothing more specific.”
Wray told lawmakers the FBI had done away with separate categories for black identity extremists and white supremacists, and said the bureau was instead now focusing on “racially motivated” violence. But he added, “I will say that a majority of the domestic terrorism cases that we’ve investigated are motivated by some version of what you might call white supremacist violence.”
The FBI had faced mounting criticism for the term “black identity extremists,” after its use was revealed by Foreign Policy Magazine In 2017. Critics pointed out that the term was an FBI invention based solely on race, since no group or even any specific individuals actually identify as black identity extremists.
In May, Michael C. McGarrity, the FBI’s assistant director of the counterterrorism division, told Congressthe bureau now “classifies domestic terrorism threats into four main categories: racially motivated violent extremism, anti-government/anti-authority extremism, animal rights/environmental extremism, and abortion extremism,” a term the bureau uses to classify both pro-choice and anti-abortion extremists.
The new focus on conspiracy theorists appears to fall under the broader category of anti-government extremism. “This is the first FBI product examining the threat from conspiracy theory-driven domestic extremists and provides a baseline for future intelligence products,” the document states.
The new category is different in that it focuses not on racial motivations, but on violence based specifically on beliefs that, in the words of the FBI document, “attempt to explain events or circumstances as the result of a group of actors working in secret to benefit themselves at the expense of others” and are “usually at odds with official or prevailing explanations of events.”
The FBI acknowledges conspiracy theory-driven violence is not new, but says it’s gotten worse with advances in technology combined with an increasingly partisan political landscape in the lead-up to the 2020 presidential election. “The advent of the Internet and social media has enabled promoters of conspiracy theories to produce and share greater volumes of material via online platforms that larger audiences of consumers can quickly and easily access,” the document says.
The bulletin says it is intended to provide guidance and “inform discussions within law enforcement as they relate to potentially harmful conspiracy theories and domestic extremism.”
The FBI Phoenix field office referred Yahoo News to the bureau’s national press office, which provided a written statement.
“While our standard practice is to not comment on specific intelligence products, the FBI routinely shares information with our law enforcement partners in order to assist in protecting the communities they serve,” the FBI said.
In its statement, the FBI also said it can “never initiate an investigation based solely on First Amendment protected activity. As with all of our investigations, the FBI can never monitor a website or a social media platform without probable cause.”
The Department of Homeland Security, which has also been involved in monitoring domestic extremism, did not return or acknowledge emails and phone requests for comment.
While not all conspiracy theories are deadly, those identified in the FBI’s 15-page report led to either attempted or successfully carried-out violent attacks. For example, the Pizzagate conspiracy led a 28-year-old man to invade a Washington, D.C., restaurant to rescue the children he believed were being kept there, and fire an assault-style weapon inside.
The FBI document also cites an unnamed California man who was arrested on Dec. 19, 2018, after being found with what appeared to be bomb-making materials in his car. The man allegedly was planning “blow up a satanic temple monument” in the Capitol rotunda in Springfield, Ill., to “make Americans aware of Pizzagate and the New World Order, who were dismantling society,” the document says.
Historian David Garrow, the author of a Pulitzer Prize-winning biography of Martin Luther King Jr. who has worked extensively with FBI archives, raised doubts to Yahoo News about the memo. He says the FBI’s default assumption is that violence is motivated by ideological beliefs rather than mental illness. “The guy who shot up the pizza place in D.C.: Do we think of him as a right-wing activist, or insane?” Garrow asked.
Garrow was similarly critical of the FBI’s use of the term “black identity extremists” and related attempts to ascribe incidents like the 2016 shooting of six police officers in Baton Rouge, La., to black radicalism. He said the shooter, Gavin Long, had a history of mental health problems. “The bureau’s presumption — the mindset — is to see ideological motives where most of the rest of us see individual nuttiness,” he said.
Identifying conspiracy theories as a threat could be a political lightning rod, since President Trump has been accused of promulgating some of them, with his frequent references to a deep state and his praise in 2015 for Alex Jones, who runs the conspiracy site InfoWars. While the FBI intelligence bulletin does not mention Jones or InfoWars by name, it does mention some of the conspiracy theories frequently associated with the far-right radio host, in particular the concept of the New World Order.
Jones claimed the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, in which 26 children were killed, was a hoax, a false flag operation intended as a pretext for the government to seize or outlaw firearms. The families of a number of victims have sued Jones for defamation, saying his conspiracy-mongering contributed to death threats and online abuse they have received.
While Trump has never endorsed Sandy Hook denialism, he was almost up until the 2016 election the most high-profile promoter of the birther conspiracy that claimed former President Barack Obama was not born in the United States. He later dropped his claim, and deflected criticism by pointing the finger at Hillary Clinton. He said her campaign had given birth to the conspiracy, and Trump “finished it.”
There is no evidence that Clinton started the birther conspiracy.
Joe Uscinski, an associate professor of political science at the University of Miami, whose work on conspiracy theories is cited in the intelligence bulletin, said there’s no data suggesting conspiracy theories are any more widespread now than in the past. “There is absolutely no evidence that people are more conspiratorial now,” says Uscinski, after Yahoo News described the bulletin to him. “They may be, but there is not strong evidence showing this.”
It’s not that people are becoming more conspiratorial, says Uscinski, but conspiracies are simply getting more media attention.
“We are looking back at the past with very rosy hindsight to forget our beliefs, pre-internet, in JFK [assassination] conspiracy theories and Red scares. My gosh, we have conspiracy theories about the king [of England] written into the Declaration of Independence,” he said, referencing claims that the king was planning to establish tyranny over the American colonies.
It’s not that conspiracy theorists are growing in number, Uscinski argues, but that media coverage of those conspiracies has grown. “For most of the last 50 years, 60 to 80 percent of the country believe in some form of JFK conspiracy theory,” he said. “They’re obviously not all extremist.”
Conspiracy theories, including Russia’s role in creating and promoting them, attracted widespread attention during the 2016 presidential election when they crossed over from Internet chat groups to mainstream news coverage. Yahoo new’s ” conspiracyland ” podcast recently revealed that Russia’s foreign intelligence service was the origin of a hoax report that tied the murder of Seth Rich, a Democratic National Committee staffer, to Hillary Clinton.
Washington police believe that Rich was killed in a botched robbery, and there is no proof that his murder had any political connections.
Among the violent conspiracy theories cited in the May FBI document is one involving a man who thought Transportation Security Administration agents were part of a New World Order. Another focused on the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP), a government-funded facility in Alaska that has been linked to everything from death beams to mind control. The two men arrested in connection with HAARP were “stockpiling weapons, ammunition and other tactical gear in preparation to attack” the facility, believing it was being used “to control the weather and prevent humans from talking to God.”
Nate Snyder, who served as a Department of Homeland Security counterterrorism official during the Obama administration, said that the FBI appears to be applying the same radicalization analysis it employs against foreign terrorism, like the Islamic State group, which has recruited followers in the United States.
“The domestic violent extremists cited in the bulletin are using the same playbook that groups like ISIS and al-Qaida have used to inspire, recruit and carry out attacks,” said Snyder, after reviewing a copy of the bulletin provided by Yahoo News. “You put out a bulletin and say this is the content they’re looking at — and it’s some guy saying he’s a religious cleric or philosopher — and then you look at the content, videos on YouTube, etc., that they are pushing and show how people in the U.S. might be radicalized by that content.”
Though the FBI document focuses on ideological motivations, FBI Director Wray, in his testimony last week, asserted that the FBI is concerned only with violence, not people’s beliefs. The FBI doesn’t “investigate ideology, no matter how repugnant,” he told lawmakers. “We investigate violence. And any extremist ideology, when it turns to violence, we are all over it. … In the first three quarters of this year, we’ve had more domestic terrorism arrests than the prior year, and it’s about the same number of arrests as we have on the international terrorism side.”
Yet the proliferation of the extremist categories concerns Michael German, a former FBI agent and now a fellow with the Brennan Center for Justice’s Liberty & National Security program. “It’s part of the radicalization theory the FBI has promoted despite empirical studies that show it’s bogus,” he said.
German says this new category is a continuing part of FBI overreach. “They like the radicalization theory because it justifies mass surveillance,” he said. “If we know everyone who will do harm is coming from this particular community, mass surveillance is important. We keep broadening the number of communities we include in extremist categories.”
For Garrow, the historian, the FBI’s expansive definition has its roots in bureau paranoia that dates back decades. “I think it’s their starting point,” he said. “This goes all the way back to the Hoover era without question. They see ideology as a central motivating factor in human life, and they don’t see mental health issues as a major factor.”
Yet trying to label a specific belief system as prone to violence is problematic, he said.
“I don’t think most of us would do a good job in predicting what sort of wacky information could lead someone to violence, or not lead anyone to violence,” Garrow said. “Pizzagate would be a great example of that.”
While Trump may not be supportive of labeling a group like QAnon, which sees him as a hero, as extremist, he’s in favor of broadening the number of organizations that are labeled as violent extremists, at least on the left. On Saturday, President Trump tweeted Antifa, a far-left movement opposed to what it considers fascism, should be labeled a terrorist organization.
Snyder, the former Homeland Security official, agrees that conspiracy theories may in fact inspire violence and be a threat, but questions what the government is going to do about it.
He notes that at the Department of Homeland Security, “nearly all, if not all, the intelligence analysts focusing on domestic extremist groups” were eliminated under the Trump administration. “There is no one there doing this,” he said.
50-Cent is not exactly known for his humility, but even a typically quiet executive producer might feel a bit wronged if their massive hit show repeatedly came up empty at the Emmys. In a recent panel in front of the Television Critics Association, the Power head said that he felt that race was behind his show’s lack of award recognition.
“I’d like to say it’s racial. That’s the easy way to get out of things. I just think (voters) overlook it,” he said after the show once again failed to earn a single Emmy nod.
Power features a largely black cast and two black executive producers. The discrepancy between it and other premium cable hits was on full display in this year’s Emmy nominations. While Game of Thrones pulled in a record 32 nominations for its largely disappointing final season, Power got a goose egg. This snub was in spite of the fact that Fif’s series is the second most-viewed show on pay cable behind Thrones.
50 Cent said that the voters being late to his TV show is just more of the same.
“People at awards ceremonies have always been late to my projects…This project, the content is the same material that I use for my music, and I didn’t receive the best new artist (award when I had) the largest debuting hip-hop album,” he said.
The typically chatty 50 hopes to let success be his noise, saying that in a post-Thronesworld, Power will be undeniable.
“I’m just going to make the numbers so high, in viewership, that they’ll be saying we (messed) up again,” he said.
NEW YORK, NY – The late Prince is one of the few artists who passed on the chance to collaborate with Nas, something the Queensbridge Hip Hop legend admitted during a recent Drink Champs interview. Apparently, Prince would only work with artists who owned their masters — and Nas did not.
“I sought him, because he came to my I Am… release party,” Nas says at the 48:55-minute mark. “I pulled a N.O.R.E. move, I said, ‘Yo, look man, let’s do this. Let’s do this song.’ And he was like, ‘Do you own your masters?
“But he blew my shit, because I was like, ‘I don’t. And I’m far from it, ’cause I owe this label like four, five albums.’ So I was like, ‘Damn.’”
Nas didn’t walk away completely empty handed. He says Prince taught him something that night.
“He dropped a jewel, he kind of helped me see the future and he was like, ‘When you own your masters, give me a ring,’” he explains. “But we kicked it a few times. We got cool, he was seriously a very cool dude to me. He invited me onstage to perform.
“I think everybody wanted to work with him, so the pressure that he had from everybody… He turned Michael Jackson down! The pressure he had from people who wanted to work with him was crazy.”
N.O.R.E., D.J. EFN and Nas also got into Lost Tapes 2, the making of the 1994 classic Illmatic and the potential for a Lost Tapes 3 and 4.
According to a press release, REVOLT, TIDAL and Mass Appeal will present exclusive Drink Champs content across all of their platforms, beginning with podcast episodes premiering August 13 exclusively on TIDAL.